C# Instantiate in Unity! – Beginner Scripting Tutorial

unity instantiate
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– Instantiate is a function which is used to create clones of game objects. This is commonly used in the context of cloning a prefab. A prefab is simply a preconfigured object which is saved in the projects assets. One such example might be firing projectiles from a launcher. Each of the projectiles would need to be instantiated into the game world so that it could be fired. In this example, were using Fire1 to trigger an instantiate function. The most basic form of instantiate simply takes one parameter, the object that we wish to clone. In this example, we have created a public variable called projectile, and were passing this in to the instantiate function. However, this means that the prefab will be instantiated at its default position which, in this case, is zero. And in our example, that position is the center of the world
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and the center of where the launcher is at the moment. So, when we press play, those projectiles appear at the center of the launcher, which is not what we want. Instead, we wanna fire it like a projectile so it needs to appear in front of the opening of our launcher. For this, we need a slightly different version of instantiate. This version of instantiate takes three parameters: the object to be instantiated, in our case, the projectile prefab, and then, a position and rotation to give to our new clone of the prefab. For this, I created an empty game object thats been positioned in front of the launchers barrel. Were using this by creating a public variable called barrelEnd and well use the game objects position and rotation values to assign to the new clone of our projectile prefab. By dragging and dropping this
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new game object into my barrelEnd variable in the inspector, I can reference the transformed position and rotation of the empty object and use those to assign to my projectile. So, when I press play and press fire, the projectile appears in the right place, but it just kind of drops, which is not what we want. We need to be able to affect the object thats created by our instantiation, in this case the clone of the projectile. Normally, instantiate returns a type called object, but in order to fire our projectile and add force to it, were gonna cast that type to a Rigidbody. To do this, were gonna add as Rigidbody after the instantiate call, and then store the returned value in a Rigidbody variable, which well call projectileInstance. So here, we set up a Rigidbody variable called projectileInstance and we set that variable
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to be equal to the object returned by our instantiate function. Now that we have a Rigidbody, we can use our variable projectileInstance and address anything within the Rigidbody class. For example, AddForce. And again, we can make use of the transformed barrelEnd to grab the direction at which we want to AddForce. We can then multiply by a certain amount, so when I press play and fire, my projectiles are fired off by adding a force to the clone that I create. Bear in mind that when you create many clones within the game, those things will still exist within your scene. So, if youre doing something like this, you may wanna consider writing a script which removes them from the world after a certain amount of time. Here, my prefab has a ProjectileDestruction script, which simply removes the object after a given number of seconds.
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tags:
Unity3d, Unity, Unity Technologies, Games, Game Development, Game Dev, Game Engine
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