1. Jahangir Preferring a Sufi Shaikh to Kings (Jahangir on the Hourglass Throne)-Kim Masteller

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um so by the toy into the 12th century Islamic dynasty has now come in and conquered Delhi and established a foothold in India which becomes the Delhi Sultanate and you can see that it was able to extend quite a bit of control from Delhi across North India early on but so a much later dynasty or the Mughals founded in 1526 and at their greatest height theyll go almost down to Tamil Nadu the chola area but not quite and its under the Mongol yeah so weve got the great Mughal Kings painting begins under Akbar the third emperor theres a great interest of European art theyre getting prints through exchange and diplomatic gifts also paintings which here they have the miniaturist sin the copy so this is where you see a great interest in European art and maybe a perspective atmospheric perspective and particularly under Jahangir naturalism so these are paintings he commissioned from his artist his father Akbar who had this great painting school had hundreds of artists he when he went out it down maybe twenty or thirty and he talked about them in his biography which he wrote and talked about who was good at what and he bragged about himself as a connoisseur and that if he showed him a painting or drawing he could pick out the artist and if the different artists did the face and different did the hands he was good enough that he could tell them apart so Jahangir didnt expand the Empire it contracted under him he might not have been a great political wreath leader but he was an amazing connoisseur collector and under him he Indian painting kind of culminates because of this infusion of Persian styles earlier Indian painting and his intense interest on naturalism and what you could do with painting so more paintings done under Jahangir by his artists this one you have I gave you the John years description from the Asian reader about the death of his friend Inayat Khan and on his deathbed he sent one of his artists to capture his likeness he was dying he was an opium addict that became this painting which is at the boat lien this is actually at the MFA in Boston and this is the standard art history classroom comparison to have students compare what are the strengths what are the weaknesses what can the drawing do that a finished painting cannot vice versa and its a its incredible theres also a great interest upon under Jahangir Akbar was into manuscripts like the shut you know like the Shahnameh and Jahangir was interested in albums books beautifully put together books of images

and calligraphy and maybe they didnt tell a story or maybe they were thematically linked but rather than Illustrated manuscripts of famous narrative stories and histories he favored the album so this is an album page from one of John Guares albums and here you see in these beautiful borders a European print – Persian paintings and another early Iranian painting of a lion all put together in one composition the album is however many pages like a scrapbook almost that you put together these were different pieces like scrapbooking that a print and some Safavid Arab paintings and an earlier Persian painting that it that he perhaps told the artists he wanted in the book and they came up with the presentation but and these albums often have multiple pieces of paper just in the borders we x-rayed one once when I was at Harvard at persian album page that looked like it was probably one composition only one or two pieces of paper it had forty little tiny strips were individual this would have been individual this was taken from another book beautifully carefully put together and glued together stunning so this is the page youve all probably taught it but this is the pinnacle of Indian painting most important of MIT of a tradition thats very very important and it probably gets that title not just for the beautiful and but because of the political symbolism its a just a fabulous combination the floral border is later the album was taken from the Mughal libraries in Delhi after a siege by a foreign army at fort named nadir Shah and he took it back to Iran it was remounted in a album format by persian artists so this is a later Persian floral border and eventually the album went to Saint Petersburg where the Rubens was and so much of it is there a few the folios or elsewhere and a small group of them are at the Smithsonian and the freer Sackler liked this piece so its you know the story of Jahangir its this presiding divine figure right seated on this European hourglass-shaped throne receiving a book from this bearded man and pretty much ignoring the Ottoman Sultan James the first from England and his artists though the inscriptions tell us though outwardly Shahs stand before him he fixes his gazes upon or on dervishes meaning the Sufis so meaning hes not worldly focused hes a great spiritual leader and his heart is with the Sufi and heres the book and you can see its one of those leather ones with the Persian medallion and gold on it beautifully detailed so who is he all right

well to my theory is that he is a portrait a Sufi from the chisti order which is the specific order just like the Saffys that supported the Safavid or the were associated with the Safavid kingdom the chippie order was associated with the Mughals after Jahangir s father would pay visits to a chisti sufi at his abode in fatehpur sikri this little area outside of Agra and he would go to him for spiritual guidance and asking if he would have a son because he had no error and that Sufi chisti predicted that he would have a son and then Saleem was born and Salim became Jahangir so that came true Akbar put his faith that this is the lineage this is my spiritual guide he went and built his new capital city at Fatehpur Sikri at the abode of the Sufi and enshrined him there at his death and so we find in Jahangirs paintings multiple depictions of these chisti Sufis this is the 12th century founder of the lineage the religious lineage he is handing a globe of the world over to Jahangir who is holding a globe of the world they had the same inscriptions and these were book pages this is a spread that faced each other in one of Jahangir s albums so theres clearly a political link Jahangir is making to this spiritual guidance of this chisti order so this is what I would call another example and this is where this term came from actually Dervish centered kingship and then here we see this is actually Saleem shrine at floody poor sikri this beautiful marble shrine until you know you were only supposed to use marble for a shrine or a tomb of a holy man spiritual leader till the Taj Mahal well and Jahan Gears father-in-law and thats it that was a controversy – but heres Jahangir holding a picture of his father Akbar kind of offering this globe worldly power to him so he was all about the use of portraiture and political imagery to set up kind of propaganda about himself so is this the founder mooing Alden chisti an imagined portrait of what he looked like or could this be the the Sufi who was alive and counseling him Shaykh Hussein chisti we dont know I wanted to give you something a little different than what you were going to get on Khan Academy which has a great story on this and then the idea of the figures we know James the purse there was a portrait of him given to Jahangir in his court through the British ambassador Thomas Rowe a portrait by John de critz

probably the source for this portrait and heres beached her the artist holding up a miniature and him in the yellow JAMA bowing before his king and patron and portraits are rare in among the Mughals in here he signs it Im all essentially made by beached her on this row tusk multi-headed footstool beached her was a Hindu so could this unusual imagery have something to do with his self-identification and I look I didnt notice that I was working this PowerPoint but his signature is directly under the book he would have worked in the great scriptorium the where the artist painted and the books were assembled the inscription Oh Shah may your life be a thousand years but of course its not hes starting to get old so is this about sadness at the passage of time did the putti turn away because they cant bear that their brilliant divine leader will die we dont know what all the symbolism means but its great and this isnt the only allegorical portrait that Joe Hunger made he so weve got it in two albums the st. Petersburg album and the Minto album and so here you see the other great thing and Ill just Ill wrap up with this heres Jehan here seated with Shah boss the Emperor of the Safavids who moved his capital back to Isfahan around 1600 and knew they were always weak but they were the neighbor if they could ally they could be one of the most powerful dynasties in the world they would cover you know they theyd be a bulkhead a threat to the Ottomans threat to the Ming the Mughals were already one of the greatest empires of the times why all the Europeans were trying to get there and so it was always Jahangir dreamed to make that alliance with Persia he was married to a Persian woman his in-law who was very high-ranking minister was Persian he swayed Persian culturally he wanted this to happen so here they are having a meeting here they are hugging on the globe of the world together ruling the world together of course he is the lion and the Safavid so the lamb clearly taking biblical symbolism there yeah and unfortunately for him shortly after these albums were done Im trying to remember the day its like 1625 or something the Safavids invaded Afghanistan and took over the Mughal cities and territories to the northwest and so that ended it this was a dream an allegory he put forth propaganda if you will what he wanted to happen and it didnt they became clear enemies at that point and no alliance was ever made

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